vi, view, vedit - screen-oriented  (visual)  display  editor
     based on ex

     /usr/bin/vi [ - | -s ] [-l] [-L] [-R] [ -r [ filename]]
          [ -t tag ] [-v] [-V] [-x] [ -wn ] [-C]
          [ +command | -c command ] filename...

     /usr/bin/view [ - | -s ] [-l] [-L] [-R] [ -r [ filename]]
          [ -t tag ] [-v] [-V] [-x] [ -wn ] [-C]
          [ +command | -c command ] filename...

     /usr/bin/vedit [ - | -s ] [-l] [-L] [-R] [ -r [ filename]]
          [ -t tag ] [-v] [-V] [-x] [ -wn ] [-C]
          [ +command | -c command ] filename...


     vi (visual) is a display-oriented text editor  based  on  an
     underlying  line  editor ex.  It is possible to use the com-
     mand mode of ex from within vi and to use the  command  mode
     of  vi from within ex.  The visual commands are described on
     this manual page; how to  set  options  (like  automatically
     numbering lines and automatically starting a new output line
     when you type carriage return) and all ex line  editor  com-
     mands are described on the ex(1) manual page.

     When using vi, changes you make to the file are reflected in
     what  you  see on your terminal screen.  The position of the
     cursor on the screen indicates the position within the file.

     The view invocation is  the  same  as  vi  except  that  the
     readonly flag is set.

     The vedit invocation is intended for beginners.  It  is  the
     same  as  vi  except  that  the report flag is set to 1, the
     showmode and novice flags are set, and magic is turned  off.
     These defaults make it easier to learn how to use vi.

  Invocation Options
     The following invocation options are interpreted by vi (pre-
     viously  documented  options are discussed in the NOTES sec-
     tion of this manual page):

     - | -s         Suppress all interactive user feedback.  This
                   is useful when processing editor scripts.

     -l             Set up for editing LISP programs.

     -L             List the name  of  all  files  saved  as  the
                   result of an editor or system crash.

     -R             Readonly mode;  the  readonly  flag  is  set,
                   preventing accidental overwriting of the file.

     -r filename    Edit  filename  after  an  editor  or  system
                   crash.  (Recovers the version of filename that
                   was in the buffer when the crash occurred.)

     -t tag         Edit the file containing the tag and position
                   the editor at its definition.

     -v             Start up in display editing state  using  vi.
                   You can achieve the same effect by simply typ-
                   ing the -vi command itself.

     -V             Verbose.  Any non-tty input will be echoed on
                   standard  error.  This may be useful when pro-
                   cessing editor commands within shell scripts.

     -x             Encryption option; when  used,  vi  simulates
                   the X command of ex and prompts the user for a
                   key.  This key is used to encrypt and  decrypt
                   text using the algorithm of the crypt command.
                   The X  command  makes  an  educated  guess  to
                   determine whether text read in is encrypted or
                   not.  The temporary buffer file  is  encrypted
                   also,  using  a transformed version of the key
                   typed in for the -x option.

     -wn            Set the default window size  to  n.  This  is
                   useful when using the editor over a slow speed

     -C             Encryption option; same as  the  - x  option,
                   except  that vi simulates the C command of ex.
                   The C command is like the  X  command  of  ex,
                   except  that  all  text  read in is assumed to
                   have been encrypted.

     +command | -c  command
                   Begin editing by executing the specified  edi-
                   tor  command  (usually a search or positioning

     The following operands are supported:

     filename       A file to be edited.


  vi Modes
     Command        Normal and initial mode.  Other modes  return
                    to   command   mode   upon  completion.   ESC
                    (escape) is used to cancel a partial command.

     Input          Entered  by  setting  any  of  the  following
                    options:   a  A i I o O c C s S R.  Arbitrary
                    text may then be entered. Input mode is  nor-
                    mally  terminated  with  ESC  character,  or,
                    abnormally, with an interrupt.

     Last line      Reading input for : / ? or  !;  terminate  by
                    typing  a  carriage return; an interrupt can-
                    cels termination.

  Sample commands
     In the descriptions, CR stands for carriage return  and  ESC
     stands for the escape key.

     <- v ^ ->    arrow keys move the cursor
     h j k l      same as arrow keys
     itextESC     insert text
     cwnewESC     change word to new
     easESC       pluralize word (end of word; append s;
                  escape from input state)
     x            delete a character
     dw           delete a word
     dd           delete a line
     3dd          delete 3 lines
     u            undo previous change
     ZZ           exit vi, saving changes
     :q!CR        quit, discarding changes
     /textCR      search for text
     ^U ^D        scroll up or down
     :cmdCR       any ex or ed command

  Counts before vi commands
     Numbers may be typed as a prefix to some commands.  They are
     interpreted in one of these ways.
     line/column number   z  G  |
     scroll amount        ^D  ^U
     repeat effect        most of the rest

  Interrupting, canceling
      ESC          end insert or incomplete cmd
      DEL          (delete or rubout) interrupts

  File manipulation
      ZZ              if file modified, write and exit; otherwise, exit
      :wCR            write back changes
      :w!CR           forced write, if permission originally not valid
      :qCR            quit
      :q!CR           quit, discard changes
      :e nameCR       edit file name
      :e!CR           reedit, discard changes
      :e + nameCR     edit, starting at end
      :e +nCR         edit starting at line n
      :e #CR          edit alternate file
      :e! #CR         edit alternate file, discard changes
      :w nameCR       write file name
      :w! nameCR      overwrite file name
      :shCR           run shell, then return
      :!cmdCR         run cmd, then return
      :nCR            edit next file in arglist
      :n argsCR       specify new arglist
      ^G              show current file and line
      :ta tagCR       position cursor to tag

     In general, any ex or ed command (such as substitute or glo-
     bal)  may  be  typed,  preceded by a colon and followed by a
     carriage return.

  Positioning within file
      ^F           forward screen
      ^B           backward screen
      ^D           scroll down half screen
      ^U           scroll up half screen
      nG           go to the beginning of the specified line (end default),
                   where n is a line number
      /pat         next line matching pat
      ?pat         previous line matching pat
      n            repeat last / or ? command
      N            reverse last / or ? command
      /pat/+n      nth line after pat
      ?pat?-n      nth line before pat
      ]]           next section/function
      [[           previous section/function
      (            beginning of sentence
      )            end of sentence
      {            beginning of paragraph
      }            end of paragraph
      %            find matching ( ) { or }

  Adjusting the screen
      ^L            clear and redraw window
      ^R            clear and redraw window if ^L is -> key
      zCR           redraw screen with current line at top of window
      z-CR          redraw screen with current line at bottom of window
      z.CR          redraw screen with current line at center of window
      /pat/z-CR     move pat line to bottom of window
      zn.CR         use n-line window
      ^E            scroll window down 1 line
      ^Y            scroll window up 1 line

  Marking and returning
      ``           move cursor to previous context
      ''           move cursor to first non-white space in line
      mx           mark current position with the ASCII lower-case letter x
      `x           move cursor to mark x
      'x           move cursor to first non-white space in line marked by x

  Line positioning
      H            top line on screen
      L            last line on screen
      M            middle line on screen
      +            next line, at first non-white
      -            previous line, at first non-white
      CR           return, same as +
      v or j       next line, same column
      ^ or k       previous line, same column

  Character positioning
      ^            first non white-space character
      0            beginning of line
      $            end of line
      l or ->      forward
      h or <-      backward
      ^H           same as <- (backspace)
      space        same as -> (space bar)
      fx           find next x
      Fx           find previous x
      tx           move to character prior to next x
      Tx           move to character following previous x
      ;            repeat last f, F, t, or T
      ,            repeat inverse of last f, F, t, or T
      n|           move to column n
      %            find matching ( { ) or }

  Words, sentences, paragraphs
      w            forward a word
      b            back a word
      e            end of word
      )            to next sentence
      }            to next paragraph
      (            back a sentence
      {            back a paragraph
      W            forward a blank-delimited word
      B            back a blank-delimited word
      E            end of a blank-delimited word

  Corrections during insert
      ^H           erase last character (backspace)
      ^W           erase last word
      erase        your erase character, same as ^H (backspace)
      kill         your kill character, erase this line of input
      \            quotes your erase and kill characters
      ESC          ends insertion, back to command mode
      CTRL-C       interrupt, suspends insert mode
      ^D           backtab one character; reset left margin of autoindent
      ^^D          caret (^) followed by control-d (^D);
                   backtab to beginning of line;
                   do not reset left margin of autoindent
      0^D          backtab to beginning of line; reset left margin of autoindent
      ^V           quote non-printable character

  Insert and replace
      a            append after cursor
      A            append at end of line
      i            insert before cursor
      I            insert before first non-blank
      o            open line below
      O            open above
      rx           replace single char with x
      RtextESC     replace characters

     Operators are followed by a cursor motion,  and  affect  all
     text  that would have been moved over.  For example, since w
     moves over a word, dw deletes the word that would  be  moved
     over.   Double the operator, for example, dd to affect whole

      d            delete
      c            change
      y            yank lines to buffer
      <            left shift
      >            right shift
      !            filter through command

  Miscellaneous Operations
      C            change rest of line (c$)
      D            delete rest of line (d$)
      s            substitute chars (cl)
      S            substitute lines (cc)
      J            join lines
      x            delete characters (dl)
      X            delete characters before cursor (dh)
      Y            yank lines (yy)

  Yank and Put
     Put inserts the text most recently deleted or  yanked;  how-
     ever,  if  a  buffer  is  named  (using the ASCII lower-case
     letters a - z), the text in that buffer is put instead.
      3yy          yank 3 lines
      3yl          yank 3 characters
      p            put back text after cursor
      P            put back text before cursor
      "xp          put from buffer x
      "xy          yank to buffer x
      "xd          delete into buffer x

  Undo, Redo, Retrieve
      u            undo last change
      U            restore current line
      .            repeat last change
      "dp          retrieve d'th last delete

     vi and ex were developed by The  University  of  California,
     Berkeley  California,  Computer Science Division, Department
     of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science.

     If any  of  the  LC_*  variables  (  LC_CTYPE,  LC_MESSAGES,
     environ(5)) are not set in the environment, the  operational
     behavior  of  vi  for  each corresponding locale category is
     determined by the value of the  LANG  environment  variable.
     If LC_ALL is set, its contents are used to override both the
     LANG and the other LC_* variables.  If  none  of  the  above
     variables  is  set in the environment, the "C"  (U.S. style)
     locale determines how vi behaves.

          Determines how vi handles characters. When LC_CTYPE  is
          set  to  a  valid value, vi can display and handle text
          and filenames  containing  valid  characters  for  that
          locale.  vi  can  display and handle Extended Unix code
          (EUC) characters where any individual character can  be
          1,  2,  or 3 bytes wide. vi can also handle EUC charac-
          ters of 1, 2, or more column widths. In the "C" locale,
          only characters from ISO 8859-1 are valid.

          Determines how vi handles date and  time  formats.   In
          the "C" locale, date and time handling follows the U.S.

     /var/tmp                 default directory  where  temporary
                              work  files  are  placed; it can be
                              changed using the directory  option
                              (see the ex(1) set command)
                              compiled terminal description data-
     /usr/lib/.COREterm/?/ *    subset   of   compiled   terminal
                              description database

     intro(1), ed(1), edit(1), ex(1), environ(5)

     Two options, although they continue to  be  supported,  have
     been  replaced  in  the documentation by options that follow
     the Command Syntax Standard (see intro(1)).  A   - r  option
     that  is  not  followed  with  an  option-argument  has been
     replaced by -L and +command has been replaced by -c command.

     The message file too large to recover with -r option , which
     is  seen  when a file is loaded, indicates that the file can
     be edited and saved successfully, but if the editing session
     is lost, recovery of the file with the -r option will not be

     The editing environment defaults  to  certain  configuration
     options.   When an editing session is initiated, vi attempts
     to read the EXINIT environment variable. If it  exists,  the
     editor  uses  the  values  defined  in EXINIT, otherwise the
     values set in $HOME/.exrc are used. If $HOME/.exrc does  not
     exist, the default values are used.

     To use a copy of .exrc  located  in  the  current  directory
     other   than  $HOME,  set  the  exrc  option  in  EXINIT  or
     $HOME/.exrc.  Options set in EXINIT can be turned off  in  a
     local .exrc only if exrc is set in EXINIT or $HOME/.exrc.

     Tampering with entries  in  /usr/share/lib/terminfo/?/ *  or
     /usr/share/lib/terminfo/?/* (for example, changing or remov-
     ing an entry) can affect programs such as vi that expect the
     entry  to  be  present and correct.  In particular, removing
     the "dumb" terminal may cause unexpected problems.

     Software tabs using  ^T  work  only  immediately  after  the

     Left and right shifts on intelligent terminals do  not  make
     use  of insert and delete character operations in the termi-

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